No, they work with or without ventilation but will perform better in ventilated attics. According to the building code, all attics in Florida must be vented.
Extended Version: Studies have shown that with or without a radiant barrier, a ventilated attic is best and the same holds true for a radiant barrier. A house will perform better with a radiant barrier and a ventilated attic than a house with a radiant barrier and a non-ventilated attic. Houses must be designed to meet the building code, which has ventilation requirements with or without a radiant barrier. In both cases, it is the ventilation rate that is important, not the method or type of ventilation.